Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2023
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Principles of Consolidation
The Company evaluates the need to consolidate affiliates based on standards set forth in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 810, “Consolidation,” (“ASC 810”). The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Pasithea Therapeutics Limited (U.K.) and Pasithea Clinics Corp. (“Pasithea Clinics”). All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
These condensed consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. Dollars.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the Company’s management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statement and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period.
Making estimates requires management to exercise significant judgment. It is at least reasonably possible that the estimate of the effect of a condition, situation or set of circumstances that existed at the date of the financial statements, which management considered in formulating its estimate, could change in the near term due to one or more future confirming events. Management regularly makes estimates related to the fair value of warrant liabilities; the recoverability of long-lived assets; the fair values and useful lives of intangible assets acquired in business combinations; the potential impairment of goodwill; and income taxes. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various assumptions that are believed to be reasonable, the results of which form the basis for the amounts recorded in the condensed consolidated financial statements. As appropriate, the Company obtains reports from third-party valuation experts to inform and support estimates related to fair value measurements.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are charged to operations when incurred and are included in operating expense, except for goodwill related to intellectual property & patents. Research and development costs consist principally of compensation of employees and consultants that perform the Company’s research activities, payments to third parties for preclinical and non-clinical activities, costs to acquire drug product from contract development and manufacturing organizations and third-party contractors relating to chemistry, manufacturing and controls (“CMC”) efforts, the fees paid for and to maintain the Company’s intellectual property, and research and development costs related to our discovery programs. Depending upon the timing of payments to the service providers, the Company recognizes prepaid expenses or accrued expenses related to these costs. These accrued or prepaid expenses are based on management’s estimates of the work performed under service agreements, milestones achieved and experience with similar contracts. The Company monitors each of these factors and adjusts estimates accordingly.
Cash and cash equivalents
The Company considers all short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. The Company had $10.0 million of cash equivalents consisting of marketable securities in U.S. government money market funds as of March 31, 2023, and did not have any cash equivalents as of December 31, 2022.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is recorded at cost. Depreciation is computed using straight-line and accelerated methods over the estimated useful lives of the related assets. Expenditures that enhance the useful lives of the assets are capitalized and depreciated. Maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. When properties are retired or otherwise disposed of, related costs and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts.
The Company accounts for its Public and Representative Warrants (each, the “Public Warrants” and “Representative Warrants” and, collectively, the “IPO Warrants”) in accordance with the guidance contained in ASC 815, “Derivatives and Hedging,” under which the IPO Warrants do not meet the criteria for equity treatment and must be recorded as derivative liabilities. Accordingly, the Company classifies the IPO Warrants as liabilities at their fair value and adjusts the IPO Warrants to fair value at each reporting period. This liability is subject to re-measurement at each balance sheet date until the IPO Warrants are exercised or expire, and any change in fair value is recognized in the Company’s condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss. The fair value of the Public and Representative Warrants was initially measured at the end of each reporting period, using a Black-Scholes option pricing model. As of March 31, 2023, the fair value of the Public Warrants was measured using quoted market prices, and the fair value of the Representative Warrants was based on an estimate of the relative fair value to the Public Warrants, accounting for a small difference in the exercise price.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist of a cash account in a financial institution, which, at times, may exceed the Federal Depository Insurance Coverage of $250,000. As of March 31, 2023, the Company has not experienced losses on this account and management believes the Company is not exposed to significant risks on such account.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Except for liabilities related to the IPO Warrants, described in the table below, the fair value of the Company’s assets and liabilities, which qualify as financial instruments under ASC 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures,” approximates the carrying amounts represented in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets, primarily due to their short-term nature.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received for sale of an asset or paid for transfer of a liability, in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. GAAP establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). These tiers include:
The following table presents information about the Company’s assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis and indicates the fair value hierarchy of the valuation inputs the Company utilized to determine such fair value:
The following table presents a reconciliation of the Level 3 representative warrant liabilities for December 31, 2021 through March 31, 2022:
The following table presents a reconciliation of the Level 3 representative warrant liabilities for December 31, 2022 through March 31, 2023:
The change in fair value of the representative warrant liabilities is recorded in change in fair value of warrant liabilities on the condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss.
The fair value of the cash equivalents is based on the fair value of marketable securities invested in U.S. government money market funds.
The fair value of the liability associated with the Public Warrants as of March 31, 2023 was based on the quoted closing price on The Nasdaq Capital Market and is classified as Level 1. The fair value of the liability associated with the Representative Warrants as of March 31, 2023 was based on an estimate of the relative fair value to the Public Warrants, accounting for a small difference in the exercise price, and is classified as Level 3.
In some circumstances, the inputs used to measure fair value might be categorized within different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In those instances, the fair value measurement is categorized in its entirety in the fair value hierarchy based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
Net Loss Per Share
Net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted earnings per share is computed similar to basic earnings per share, except the weighted average number of common shares outstanding are increased to include additional shares from the assumed exercise of share options, if dilutive. The following outstanding shares issuable upon exercise of stock options and warrants and vesting of restricted stock units were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share for the periods presented because including them would have had an anti-dilutive effect:
Foreign Currency Translations
The Company’s functional and reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. All transactions initiated in other currencies are translated into U.S. dollars using the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the U.S. dollar at the rate of exchange in effect at the balance sheet date. Unrealized exchange gains and losses arising from such transactions are deferred until realization and are included as a separate component of stockholders’ equity (deficit) as a component of comprehensive income or loss. Upon realization, the amount deferred is recognized in income in the period when it is realized.
Translation of Foreign Operations
The financial results and position of foreign operations whose functional currency is different from the Company’s presentation currency are translated as follows:
Exchange differences arising on translation of foreign operations are transferred directly to the Company’s accumulated other comprehensive loss in the condensed consolidated financial statements. Transaction gains and losses arising from exchange rate fluctuation on transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The relevant translation rates are as follows:
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
ASC 220, “Comprehensive Income,” establishes standards for reporting and display of comprehensive income (loss) and its components in a full set of general-purpose financial statements. As of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company had no material items of other comprehensive income (loss) except for the foreign currency translation adjustment.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Management does not believe that any recently issued, but not yet effective, accounting pronouncements, if currently adopted, would have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses, which requires entities to estimate all expected credit losses for financial assets measured at amortized cost basis, including trade receivables, held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. The Company adopted this guidance on March 31, 2023. The adoption of this accounting standard did not have a material impact to the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef