Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and New Accounting Standards
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND NEW ACCOUNTING STANDARDS||
NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND NEW ACCOUNTING STANDARDS
Principles of Consolidation
The Company evaluates the need to consolidate affiliates based on standards set forth in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 810, “Consolidation,” (“ASC 810”). The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Pasithea Therapeutics Limited (U.K.), Pasithea Clinics Corp. (“Pasithea Clinics”) Pasithea Therapeutics Portugal, Sociedade Unipessoal Lda (“Pasithea Portugal”), and Alpha 5 Integrin, LLC. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
These condensed consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. Dollars.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the Company’s management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statement and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period.
Making estimates requires management to exercise significant judgment. It is at least reasonably possible that the estimate of the effect of a condition, situation or set of circumstances that existed at the date of the financial statements, which management considered in formulating its estimate, could change in the near term due to one or more future confirming events. One of the more significant accounting estimates included in these condensed consolidated financial statements is the determination of fair value of the warrant liabilities. Accordingly, the actual results could differ significantly from those estimates.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are charged to operations when incurred and are included in operating expense, except for goodwill related to intellectual property & patents. Research and development costs consist principally of compensation of employees and consultants that perform the Company’s research activities, payments to third parties for preclinical and non-clinical activities, costs to acquire drug product from contract development and manufacturing organizations and third-party contractors relating to chemistry, manufacturing and controls (“CMC”) efforts, the fees paid for and to maintain the Company’s intellectual property, and research and development costs related to our discovery programs. Depending upon the timing of payments to the service providers, the Company recognizes prepaid expenses or accrued expenses related to these costs. These accrued or prepaid expenses are based on management’s estimates of the work performed under service agreements, milestones achieved and experience with similar contracts. The Company monitors each of these factors and adjusts estimates accordingly.
Cash and cash equivalents
The Company considers all short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. The Company had no cash equivalents as of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is recorded at cost. Depreciation is computed using straight-line and accelerated methods over the estimated useful lives of the related assets. Expenditures that enhance the useful lives of the assets are capitalized and depreciated. Maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. When properties are retired or otherwise disposed of, related costs and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts. As of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company had total fixed assets (property and equipment) of $374,182 and $21,503, respectively, with accumulated depreciation of $33,670, and $1,379, respectively. Depreciation expense was $16,670 and $32,471 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, and zero for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, respectively.
Offering costs consist of professional fees, filing, regulatory and other costs incurred through the balance sheet date that are directly related to the Initial Public Offering. In September 2021, the Company recognized offering costs of $3,445,200, consisting of $2,137,800 of underwriting fees and expenses and $1,307,400 of costs related to the Initial Public Offering. Offering costs are allocated to the separable financial instruments issued in the Initial Public Offering based on the relative fair value basis compared to total proceeds received.
The Company accounts for its Public and Representative Warrants (each, the “Public Warrants” and “Representative Warrants” and, collectively, the “IPO Warrants”) in accordance with the guidance contained in ASC 815, “Derivatives and Hedging,” under which the IPO Warrants do not meet the criteria for equity treatment and must be recorded as derivative liabilities. Accordingly, the Company classifies the IPO Warrants as liabilities at their fair value and adjusts the IPO Warrants to fair value at each reporting period. This liability is subject to re-measurement at each balance sheet date until the IPO Warrants are exercised or expire, and any change in fair value is recognized in the Company’s condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss. The fair value of the Public and Representative Warrants was initially measured at the end of each reporting period, using a Black-Scholes option pricing model. As of September 30, 2022, the fair value of the Public Warrants was measured using quoted market prices, and the fair value of the Representative Warrants was based on an estimate of the relative fair value to the Public Warrants, accounting for a small difference in the exercise price.
The Company follows the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes under ASC 740, “Income Taxes.” Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that included the enactment date. Valuation allowances are established, when necessary, to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. As of September 30, 2022, the Company had deferred tax assets related to certain net operating losses. A valuation allowance was established against these deferred tax assets at their full amount, resulting in a zero balance of deferred tax assets on the condensed consolidated balance sheets as of September 30, 2022.
ASC 740 prescribes a recognition threshold and a measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. For those benefits to be recognized, a tax position must be more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities. The Company recognizes accrued interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits as income tax expense. There were no unrecognized tax benefits and no amounts accrued for interest and penalties as of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021. The Company is currently not aware of any issues under review that could result in significant payments, accruals or material deviation from its position. The Company is subject to income tax examinations by major taxing authorities since inception.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist of a cash account in a financial institution, which, at times, may exceed the Federal Depository Insurance Coverage of $250,000. As of September 30, 2022, the Company has not experienced losses on this account and management believes the Company is not exposed to significant risks on such account.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
With the exception of liabilities related to the IPO Warrants, described in the table below, the fair value of the Company’s assets and liabilities, which qualify as financial instruments under ASC 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures,” approximates the carrying amounts represented in the accompanying balance sheet, primarily due to their short-term nature.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received for sale of an asset or paid for transfer of a liability, in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. GAAP establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). These tiers include:
The following table presents information about the Company’s liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis and indicates the fair value hierarchy of the valuation inputs the Company utilized to determine such fair value:
The fair value of the liability associated with the Public Warrants as of September 30, 2022 was based on the quoted closing price on The Nasdaq Capital Market and is classified as Level 1. The fair value of the liability associated with the Representative Warrants as of September 30, 2022 was based on an estimate of the relative fair value to the Public Warrants, accounting for a small difference in the exercise price, and is classified as Level 3. The change of the Public Warrant liability from Level 3 to Level 1 was the only change between levels of the fair value hierarchy from December 31, 2021 to September 30, 2022.
In some circumstances, the inputs used to measure fair value might be categorized within different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In those instances, the fair value measurement is categorized in its entirety in the fair value hierarchy based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
The Company accounts for revenue in accordance with ASC Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers.”
The Company currently derives all its revenue from its operations providing business support services to registered healthcare providers who assess patients, and if appropriate, administer intravenous infusions of ketamine. Under the business support services agreements, the Company, among other things, markets the treatments to the extent permitted under law, arranges and pays for the fit-out of the consulting room, provides equipment necessary for the treatments, develops, operates and maintains a booking website for the treatments, makes bookings and takes payments, and employs or engages customer service advisers to liaise with clinical staff and pay certain staff costs. The price of the treatments are fixed amounts jointly established by the Company and the healthcare providers. The Company collects 100% of the payment in advance from the patients, who personally pay for the services. The Company retains 30% of revenues from ketamine infusion treatments, less certain clinical staff costs which result from the provision of the treatments. The Company has determined that it acts as an agent under the business support services agreements and recognizes the net revenues retained from ketamine infusion treatments in the unaudited condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss.
The Company also may arrange psychotherapy sessions with independent therapy professionals for patients. In such cases, the Company acts as a principal and recognizes the gross amount of revenue earned from such sessions, with the cost paid to the independent therapy professionals recognized in cost of services in the unaudited condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss.
The Company’s performance obligation is satisfied when the services are rendered to the customer. There were no contract assets or liabilities as of September 30, 2022 or December 31, 2021. All sales have fixed pricing and there are currently no variable components included in the Company’s revenue.
Net Loss Per Share
Net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock par value $0.0001 (the “Common Stock”) outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted earnings per share is computed similar to basic earnings per share, except the weighted average number of shares of Common Stock outstanding are increased to include additional shares from the assumed exercise of share options, if dilutive. The following outstanding shares issuable upon exercise of stock options and warrants and vesting of restricted stock units were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share for the periods presented because including them would have had an anti-dilutive effect:
Foreign Currency Translations
The Company’s functional and reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. All transactions initiated in other currencies are translated into U.S. dollars using the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the U.S. dollar at the rate of exchange in effect at the balance sheet date. Unrealized exchange gains and losses arising from such transactions are deferred until realization and are included as a separate component of stockholders’ equity (deficit) as a component of comprehensive income or loss. Upon realization, the amount deferred is recognized in income in the period when it is realized.
Translation of Foreign Operations
The financial results and position of foreign operations whose functional currency is different from the Company’s presentation currency are translated as follows:
Exchange differences arising on translation of foreign operations are transferred directly to the Company’s accumulated other comprehensive loss in the condensed consolidated financial statements. Transaction gains and losses arising from exchange rate fluctuation on transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The relevant translation rates are as follows:
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
ASC 220, “Comprehensive Income,” establishes standards for reporting and display of comprehensive income (loss) and its components in a full set of general-purpose financial statements. As of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company had no items impacting other comprehensive income (loss) except for the foreign currency translation adjustment.
Acquisitions, Intangible Assets and Goodwill
The condensed consolidated financial statements reflect the operations of an acquired business beginning as of the date of acquisition. Assets acquired and liabilities assumed are recorded at their fair values at the date of acquisition; goodwill is recorded for any excess of the purchase price over the fair values of the net assets acquired. Significant judgment is required to determine the fair value of certain tangible and intangible assets and in assigning their respective useful lives. Accordingly, we typically obtain the assistance of third-party valuation specialists for significant tangible and intangible assets. The fair values are based on available historical information and on future expectations and assumptions deemed reasonable by management but are inherently uncertain. The Company typically employs an income method to measure the fair value of intangible assets, which is based on forecasts of the expected future cash flows attributable to the respective assets. Significant estimates and assumptions inherent in the valuations reflect a consideration of other marketplace participants and include the amount and timing of future cash flows (including expected growth rates and profitability), the underlying product or technology life cycles, economic barriers to entry and the discount rate applied to the cash flows. Unanticipated market or macroeconomic events and circumstances could affect the accuracy or validity of the estimates and assumptions. Determining the useful life of an intangible asset also requires judgment. Intangible assets are amortized over their estimated lives. Any intangible assets associated with acquired in-process research and development activities (“IPR&D”) are not amortized until a product is available for sale.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets and Goodwill
Long-lived and amortizable intangible assets are assessed annually for impairment or sooner should impairment indicators exist. Significant events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable. Such circumstances may include a significant decrease in the market price of an asset, a significant adverse change in the manner in which the asset is being used or in its physical condition or a history of operating or cash flow losses associated with the use of an asset. An impairment loss is recognized when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds the anticipated future undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition. The amount of the impairment loss is the excess of the asset’s carrying value over its fair value. There were no charges related to impairments of long-lived assets for all periods presented.
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired in a business combination. Goodwill is assessed for impairment annually during the fourth quarter, or more frequently if impairment indicators exist. Impairment exists when the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds its implied fair value. The Company may elect to assess goodwill for impairment using a qualitative or a quantitative approach, to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of goodwill is greater than its carrying value. There were no charges related to goodwill impairment for all periods presented.
The Company’s has leases related to office space. The Company determines whether a contract is or contains a lease at the time of the contract’s inception based on the presence of identified assets and the Company’s right to obtain substantially all the economic benefit from or to direct the use of such assets. When the Company determines a lease exists, it records a right-of-use (“ROU”) asset and corresponding lease liability on its balance sheet. ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term. Lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. ROU assets are recognized at the lease commencement date at the present value of the remaining future lease payments the Company is obligated for under the terms of the lease. Lease liabilities are recognized concurrent with the recognition of the ROU asset and represent the present value of lease payments to be made under the lease. These ROU assets and liabilities are adjusted for any prepayments, lease incentives received, and initial direct costs incurred. As the discount rate implicit in the lease is not readily determinable in most of the Company’s leases, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the lease commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. If the Company’s lease terms include an option to extend the lease for a set period, the Company evaluates the renewal option and should it be reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option, adjust the ROU asset and liability accordingly.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2022, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2022-03, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) (“ASU 2022-03”). The amendments in ASU 2022-03 clarify that a contractual restriction on the sale of an equity security is not considered part of the unit of account of the equity security and, therefore, is not considered in measuring fair value. The amendments also clarify that an entity cannot, as a separate unit of account, recognize and measure a contractual sale restriction. The amendments in this Update also require additional disclosures for equity securities subject to contractual sale restrictions. The provisions in this Update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect to early adopt this ASU. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance on the consolidated balance sheets, results of operations and financial condition.
The Company does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective, accounting pronouncements, if currently adopted, would have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef